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(a, b) Cross-sectional FE-SEM images of sample 1, (c) plan-view, and (d) cross-sectional FE-SEM images of sample 5.
Surface FE-SEM images of samples 1–4. The change in density and diameter of nanorods can be seen.
(Color online) XRD scans of samples 1–4 on sapphire (0001) substrates. Only (000l) peaks are observed, owing to their well-oriented growth configuration. The inset shows the rocking curves and their corresponding FWHM.
Raman spectra of samples 1–4 excited by a laser line.
Dependence of the nanorod diameter on the in-plane stress for ZnO nanorod arrays grown on sapphire (0001) substrates. The solid line is the linear fitting curve.
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