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characteristics of the device. An curve is performed starting in a low conducting state, indicated by the (엯) curve. The (엯) curve ends at a bias of , which programs the next sweep into a high conducting state shown by the (∎)curve. The inset shows the device structure and retention time of a high conductance state. An initial curve is shown in a solid line and an curve after several weeks is shown with a dashed line.
Extended time response of different conducting states. States (1) through (7) have been programed with voltages of 6, 6.5, 7, 8, 10, 12, and , respectively. A probe bias of is used to show the nonvolatile nature of the seven states over an period.
Typical current responses to the write-read-rewrite-read voltage cycles; with write 1 (W1) biases of , read (R) biases of , and write 2 (W2) biases of . The sequence of voltage pulses is shown in the upper depiction, while the current response is shown in the lower one. The voltage pulse lengths are about and the difference in current between the two states is about two orders of magnitude.
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