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(a) Bright-field TEM image of a TiNi film at room temperature showing a twinned martensitic phase; (b) SAD pattern of area A in (a) for incident electron beam parallel to and confirming the existence of the martensite phase (subscripts and denote twin structures and matrix, respectively); (c) bright-field TEM image of the surface area shown in (a) obtained at revealing the transformation of martensite to austenite; and (d) SAD pattern of area B in (c) for incident electron beam parallel to  confirming the formation of austenite. The arrow in (a) and (c) points to a grain boundary that remained stable during heating.
Nanoindentation responses of TiNi films at different temperatures obtained with a spherical-conical tip of nominal radius of curvature equal to and maximum indentation load of .
(a) Effect of temperature on energy dissipation in TiNi films indented by a spherical-conical tip of nominal radius of curvature equal to ; (b) effect of maximum normal load on energy dissipation in indented TiNi films exhibiting pseudoelastic behavior. Error bars in (a) and (b) denote one standard deviation above and below the corresponding mean values, calculated from indentation data obtained from three different samples.
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