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(Color online) (a) Sketch of a high- gate dielectric device with and representing source and drain, respectively. Annular dark-field images were acquired as a through-focal series from the interface, indicated by the red box in the sketch view. (b) Nine consecutive micrographs extracted from a series of 41 images recorded at the focal values shown. One single Hf atom coming into and going out of focus is marked by white circles. The micrographs are displayed using a nonlinear contrast scale.
(Color online) Slice view of the interface. Pixel sizes are about 0.01 nm for the - and -directions and 0.5 nm in the z- direction, respectively. The image shows a single atom in the middle of the interlayer. The and the slices clearly show the location of this single Hf atom in all three dimensions.
(Color online) Excess image intensities as a function of depth plotted for five different stray Hf atoms. The vertical interval in which a total of 65 single Hf atoms are observed is limited by the two atom profiles at and 5 nm. The relative depth of 0 nm was chosen to be at a focus value where the highest resolution image of Si dumbbells in the Si wafer was obtained.
(Color online) Three-dimensional representation of the interface structure. The Si substrate was color coded in gold, whereas the film is marked solid yellow. Single Hf atoms in the interface layer are coded separately in green, black, red, and blue, according to Fig. 3 .
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