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Schematic diagram of fabrication flow for the bonded structure.
TEM image of a two-wafer-bonded structure after grind-back, etch-back, and deposition.
TEM image of a four-wafer-bonded structure after grind-back, etch-back, and deposition.
(a) and (b) Magnified TEM images of the second and third (middle and upper in Fig. 3) copper bonded layers, respectively.
(a) and (b) OM images of surfaces after two- and four-silicon-layer stacking, respectively. The light gray areas in these figures represent copper surfaces, while the dark areas mean oxide surfaces.
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