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Nanoscopic friction as a probe of local phase transitions
2.B. N. J. Persson, Sliding Friction: Physical Principles and Applications, in NanoScience and Technology, 2nd ed. (Springer, Berlin, 2000).
8.E. Riedo, I. Palaci, C. Boragno, and H. Brune, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 5324 (2004).
11.We assume that in our experiments temperature has no major effect besides modifying the relative humidity. This is confirmed by our unpublished results studying versus at and , 45, and . At all three temperatures, increases slightly with , in agreement with the curve at in Fig. 1(a). However, absolute values are lower at higher ; thus versus curves appear shifted towards lower values by increasing . We underline that this shift is only as compared to variations of about appearing in the measurements at [see Fig. 1(b)]. We would like also to remark that the formation of capillary bridges is a thermally activated phenomenon. However, in this case the thermally activation would play a role only if we had changed and not only . This topic is treated in detail in an upcoming publication.
12.In our study, we assume that the pressure is uniform in the experimental chamber; that is, also close to the heated sample. This assumption is based on the fact that at standard conditions (, ) the mean time between collisions in air is about . Since in our experiments we work in undersaturated conditions (maximum ) and the time during which the AFM tip stays in contact with the surface is always longer than , we conclude that during our measurements the pressure at the surface and the pressure in the buffer are at dynamic equilibrium and they have the same average value.
13.Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, edited by D. R. Lide (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2002–2003).
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