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(a) Top views of devices A and B; (b) cross-sectional view of device B. Device A is a conventional broad-area VCSEL and device B is a VCSEL with a ring-shaped light-emitting aperture. The shaded regions indicate Zn-diffused areas.
The characteristics of the optical output power vs biasing current of devices A and B. The insets show the emission spectra of devices A and B under an injected current of . The units of the two adjacent grids of the and axis in the inset are about and , respectively. The wavelengths of the main peaks of devices A and B are 849.31 and , respectively. The wavelength resolution is about .
The measured far-field patterns in the direction of (a) device A and (b) device B at different current levels. Square: ; circle: ; triangle: .
The measured divergence angles of devices A and B under different levels of injected current. The values in the “Average” column were calculated by averaging the measured divergence angles in the and directions.
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