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(a) TEM image of the ZnO nanowires, (b) HRTEM of the ZnO nanowires, which shows that the as-synthesized ZnO nanowires grow along the  direction.
X-ray diffraction pattern of the ZnO nanowires.
(a) Variation of shear stress vs shear rate of the ER suspension composed of ZnO nanowires and silicone oil; (b) shear yield vs applied electric field.
Current density of ZnO nanowires/silicone oil suspension vs applied electric field.
Optical microscope images of ZnO nanowires in silicone oil (a) under zero field; (b) 5 s, (c) 10 s; and (d) 15 s after applying the electric field of .
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