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Plot of the statistically measured product and the calculated effective modulus using FEM as a function of Ta barrier thickness. The product for the sample with the 75-Å Ta barrier thickness showed considerable decrease than that expected from FEM.
CDF Plots of EM test results using early failure test structures with a Ta barrier thickness of (a) 175 Å, showing the monomodal distribution, and (b) 100 Å, showing the bimodal distribution due to the line shorting with the extrusion monitor line.
The resistance changes as a function of time of dual-damascene Cu/low interconnects with the Ta barrier thickness of (a) 175 Å and (b) 100 Å. The EM test was performed at 330 °C, with the current density of .
A cross-sectional focused ion beam (FIB) micrograph of an EM-tested Cu line and extrusion monitor lines from one of the shorting failed samples shown in Fig. 2(b). The thin Cu layer between the metal line and the extrusion monitor line is observed.
The cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image showing the formation of a dark outer metal layer next to the EM stressed line. The Ta barrier thickness was 100 Å, and the EM test was performed at 330 °C, with the current density of .
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