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Optical probing of a silicon integrated circuit using electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Incident light and electric field orientation relative to the photodiode junction plane. (b) Normal incidence requires tensor elements that are necessarily zero in silicon and yields no EFISHG. (c) -polarized light can be coupled to the EFISHG field by both nonzero elements of the third-order susceptibility tensor. (d) -polarized light is only coupled to the EFISHG field by the weaker off-diagonal tensor component.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

CMOS integrated circuit containing planar photodiode structures in shallow and deep diffusion geometries and EFISHG probing location (arrow).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) Unprocessed EFISHG signal for bias voltages from . The leftmost box shows data obtained at bias and subsequent boxes correspond, left to right, to constant bias voltages incremented in steps. A background signal obtained with the laser blocked has been removed. (b) Averaged EFISHG signals shown with a quadratic fit. (c) Current-voltage characteristic measured under reverse bias conditions.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Composite oscilloscope image showing the EFISHG signal obtained in real-time using an infrared-sensitive photomultiplier tube. The top signal shows the switching waveform used to modulate the applied dc bias. The lower signals are dynamic averages over 512 traces and show the EFISHG signal for reverse biases of and .


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Optical probing of a silicon integrated circuit using electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation