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(Color online) (a) Schematic of the MTJ stacks for a toggle cell with various thickness of the bottom pinned layer to generate the bias field and (b) micromagnetic simulation of switching characteristic on different thickness of the bottom pinned layer and the corresponding field definition (inset).
(Color online) Micromagnetic simulation of the quiescent state at strong magnetic bias field generated from bottom pinned layer before toggle writing.
(Color online) (a) Writing operation of toggle MRAM with conventional pulse wave form at a strong bias field and (b) with a proposed preceding negative pulse writing scheme.
(Color online) Micromagnetic simulation of toggle MRAM switching characteristics for (a) conventional toggle wave form, (b) preceding negative pulse wave form, and (c) the comparison of the measured toggle yield with respect to the bottom pinned layer thickness and related pulse wave form.
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