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(a) Gate leakage current evolution with time of six (S1–S6) stressed in inversion mode by CVS and SCVS with of and . of is the threshold for an ultrafast progressive BD in the metal gate used in our study—below slow progressive BD, and above ultrafast progressive BD of the devices. (b) Pre- and post-BD leakage current of five (S1, S2, S4, S6, and S7) stressed in the inversion mode CVS and SCVS with of and . S1, S2, S4, and S6 are shown in (a). S6 was stressed under SCVS with first of , and once hits the , stress was continued with a higher of , leading to two post-BD curves of S6 in (b).
(Color online) (a) TEM micrographs of a narrow (S4) shown in Fig. 1 stressed under inversion mode CVS with of and . The dotted circle in the inset shows the BD location near the channel centre (, where length) measured electrically by the ratio of . No visible physical damage was observed in this device. (b) Microstructural damages associated with a breakdown in a polycrystalline narrow stressed in inversion mode with a and . The inset shows that the BD location is near the channel center.
Pre- and post-BD of six (S1–S6) shown in Fig. 1(a). The inset shows the pre- and post-BD of S1.
Schottky diode barrier height and ideality factor measured by using the post-BD of five (S2–S6) shown in Fig. 3 with the Schottky diode equation ,15 where is the area, is the effective Richardson constant of ,16 is the temperature, is the barrier height, and is the Boltzmann constant. (a) Schottky barrier height with metal-like BD path diameter of (initial percolation path diameter for progressive BD is ).18 (b) Ideality factor of various Schottky barrier plotted with the initial BD location (measured electrically).4 The inset in (b) shows the TEM micrograph of the BD spot of S6 with a .
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