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(Color online) (a) Optical microscopy image of a refractive index pattern photowritten in glass ceramic. The white-drawn picture is a schema of the high-NA (dotted line) and low-NA (straight line) configurations used for focusing the laser beam at the focal layer (FL). (b) Direct written patterns processed at different pulse energies: 1.5, 1.25, and from left to right, with unpolarized light (top) and with the sample between crossed polarizers (bottom).
Phase shift, for polarization parallel (filled marks) and orthogonal (open marks) to the polarization of the writing laser, due to laser-induced refractive index changes in glass (triangles) and containing glass (circles), at (a) high-NA and (b) low-NA focusing of the writing beam vs the laser pulse energy. (c) Phase shift in glassceramics vs the estimated relative value of maximum energy density per pulse along the propagation axis inside the material.
(a) Confocal micro-Raman spectra at 50 (lower curve) and (upper curve) from the sample surface after femtosecond writing at of energy pulse. Inset: difference spectrum. (b) Amplitude decrease of the mode of crystalline and (c) energy of the silica mode at increasing depth from the front surface of the material.
(a) TEM image of nanoparticles in glass ceramic. Inset: High resolution TEM image of a nanoparticle. (b) Reduced-size and (c) unperturbed-size nanoparticles in laser-processed and -unprocessed regions, respectively, of the material. Histogram: statistics of cluster sizes from sampling of laser-modified (white bars) and -unmodified (black bars) regions.
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