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Correlation between structural and optical characteristics in an ELO triangular cross section. (a) A low-temperature CL spectrum acquired over a large area revealing three emission peaks. The luminescence intensity is plotted on a logarithmic scale. (b) Cross-section TEM image of the region of interest showing the presence of stacking faults. CL images from the same region corresponding to emission energies of (c) 3.41 and (d) .
Bright-field TEM images of stacking faults in ELO GaN. The basal-plane stacking faults (horizontal) and the prismatic-plane stacking faults (vertical) are viewed under different diffraction conditions: (a) , (b) , (c) , and (d) . The visibility of the stacking faults depends on the displacement vector and diffraction vector . (a) and (b) require tilting the specimen by about , whereas (c) and (d) are taken close to the zone axis along the stripe direction.
Schematic representation of lattice planes and directions in the  projection. Shown are projections of the prismatic planes and their displacement vectors , as well as two of unit-cell vectors .
Monochromatic CL images acquired from the ELO triangular cross section corresponding to (a) band-edge emission at , and (b) emission due to basal-plane stacking faults at .
Translation vector R and diffraction-contrast visibility of basal plane and prismatic staking faults in GaN. The visibility criteria is described in the text.
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