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XSTM images of (a) and (b) QWs with nominal concentrations and . The sample bias voltage was , and the tunneling current was . A few In atoms in the first atomic layer are denoted by arrows. indicates cleavage defects and for atomic steps. (c) Profile of the In concentration in the (open circles) and QWs (solid circles). The errors bars indicate the statistical errors. The dashed lines indicate the average composition in the central of the QWs.
(Color online) EDS spectra obtained on  cross section of and QWs with nominal concentrations and . The line shows the and family spectra as acquired on the ternary well, whereas the filled region renders the spectrum as acquired on the quaternary well.
(a) XPS spectra of (line) and (dashed line) layers grown in the same condition with nominal concentrations and . The Ga , In doublet , and In core level emissions are showed. The deconvolution of the lineshapes according to the procedure described in Ref. 11 is also reported. (b) In content in as a function of the In content in layers (both measured by XPS) grown in the same conditions, but for the N plasma. The straight line indicates the ideal case of full In incorporation. Inset: relative reduction of the In content, , as a function of the N content. Also included are XSTM (circle), EDS (triangle), and RBS-NRA (diamond) results.
Growth conditions of the samples investigated by the different techniques (column 1): partial pressure ratio (column 2), operating pressure in the growth chamber (column 3), and rf average power (column 4). In column 5 we report the beam equivalent pressure ratio (BPR). In column 6 we show the nitrogen content in the alloy, as estimated from HRXRD measurements on samples grown in the same conditions.
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