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Insertion losses of waveguide sample B (circles). The dashed line is an estimation of the contribution due to scattering and coupling losses and serves as baseline. The difference between the insertion loss spectrum and the baseline corresponds to the absorption spectrum , where is the waveguide length. The inset is a cross section scheme of the waveguide structure.
Absorption (disks) and emission (lines) cross section spectra for the different waveguides. The various panels are labeled with the waveguide sample names and the annealing times. Emission cross sections are obtained from low pump power PL spectra excited at by normalizing the PL maximum to the maximum of the absorption cross section, [i.e., by using Eq. (2)].
(a) Absorption cross section at as a function of the square of the refractive index . (b) Measured (disks), radiative (squares), and nonradiative (triangles) lifetimes as a function of the square of the refractive index . Total lifetimes at have been measured at at low photon flux [while the rest have been calculated using Eq. (1)]. Data for in taken from the literature (Refs. 5 and 17) are also plotted as straight lines.
Waveguide parameters: Annealing time, Si excess, Er content, core layer thickness, top cladding thickness, etch depth trough the top cladding, core-layer refractive index at , confinement factor of the fundamental mode optical, and absorption losses at . Waveguides A and B have a measured rib width of about , whereas waveguides C, D, and have a rib width of about .
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