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(Color online) Red, solid curves (left axes): (a) amplitude and (b) phase of a cantilever in buffer solution, actuated by the piezostack on which the cantilever is mounted. Blue, solid curve [right axis in (a)]: thermal noise of the cantilever. The black, dashed curve overlaying the thermal noise in (a) is a harmonic-oscillator fit. The phase corresponding to this fit is depicted as a black, dashed curve in (b).
(Color online) SFM imaging of the cleaved (001) surface of muscovite mica in buffer solution, with constant frequency shift and constant amplitude . (a) Forward and (b) backward scan (fast scan axis: horizontal). The vertical scale (black to white) is . A background plane has been subtracted from the data. The arrows point at two examples of atomic-scale defects, visible in both the forward and the backward scan. (c) Correlation-averaged image of the unit cell (vertical scale: ). (d) Line sections along the yellow lines in (a) and (b). The arrows indicate the fast scan direction (forward/backward) for both curves. The offset of the vertical scale is arbitrary.
(Color online) Constant-force mode and dynamic mode (with constant frequency shift and amplitude) images of the cytoplasmic surface of purple membrane in aqueous solution. The data have been flattened. (a) Force , and vertical scale (black to white) . (b) , , , and vertical scale . (c) Force , and vertical scale . (d) , , , and vertical scale .
(a) Frequency shift and (b) corresponding interaction force as a function of distance from a purple membrane sample. Zero distance corresponds to the closest approach of the cantilever to the sample during an oscillation with . Further conditions correspond to Fig. 3(b). The dashed, vertical lines in (b) indicate the shortest and longest distance between the tip and the sample for .
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