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Schematic diagram of our combined XPS/UPS/FES system. Inset shows the spectrum obtained by individual XPS performed prior to the combined spectroscopy.
Spectrum obtained by combined spectroscopy of UPS/FES operated at applied voltage of with He I illumination. Inset is the enlarged viewgraph of low-energy cut-off of the spectra.
FES peak area-applied voltage and FES peak intensity-applied voltage characteristics obtained in combined spectroscopy of UPS/FES. Inset shows the peak area of field-emitted electrons plotted in FN plot.
The energy levels of field-emitted electrons relative to VBM obtained by combined spectroscopy of UPS/FES. The energy level of emitted electrons was around above the VBM at .
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