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Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction
13.N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Opt. Lett. 30, 1348 (2005).
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14.V. A. Podlovsk, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, Opt. Express 11, 735 (2003).
21.In lossy materials it is possible to have the real part to be negative, without having the real parts of and simultaneously negative. This is the case of the recent work of S. Zhang, W. J. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005). This can happen if the imaginary parts of and are sufficiently large, because in a lossy material , and we also have that and . After some algebra we obtain that and , so it is possible to have , provided that . In this scenario, which occurs at the low-frequency side of the region in Fig. 3, however, the imaginary parts lead to dominant losses such that we have a transmission gap with some negative phase shift rather than LH transmission (with some losses). This type of negative should not be considered LH behavior. In our experiments, although we have considerable imaginary parts, the behavior is still dominated by the negative real part of at the high-frequency side where we find the LH behavior. As one can see from Fig. 3, we obtain for experiment and for simulation at .
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