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(a) The Schottky plot of the spectral threshold of IPE electrons from Ru into for samples subjected to different sequential annealing treatments: FGA at (●), followed by annealing in at (엯), and by an additional FGA at . Lines illustrate the zero-field threshold determination using ideal image force approximation. The inset shows the scheme of electron transitions detected. (b) The characteristics for . These samples received first an annealing in at and then were subjected to different sequential annealing treatments: FGA at (●), followed by annealing in at (엯). The extracted effective WF values are indicated for the sake of comparison.
(a) The normalized characteristics measured in situ in the samples shown in Fig. 1(b) during immersion to molecular hydrogen ambient at room temperature. Only samples that received an anneal first (엯) are sensitive to hydrogen exposure. As the exposure time increases, a stretch out of the is observed which is explained by a lateral nonuniformity in the gate work function. Patches of high and low work function coexist on the same device, leading to two flatband voltage values as illustrated in panel (b).
The effective work function extracted for with either Ru or Ru. Samples were annealed for at in different gases (, , , or FG). The interfacial thickness has been varied (i.e., “slanted”) from by chemical etching to allow extraction of the effective work function from the vs EOT plot, as described in Ref. 14.
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