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(Color online) (a) Two-level VRT phenomenon observed in DRAM cell. (b) Bistable energy diagram for VRT (Ref. 1 ). (c) Thermal activation of reversible change between good and bad states for DRAM cell.
(Color online) Typical EDMR spectra measured for JLCs of 64 and samples ( at and at , respectively) at room temperature with the magnetic field parallel to  axis.
(Color online) (a) Simulated junction leakage current from defect level , assuming that electron and hole capture cross-sections ( and , respectively, in ) are , for “normal” curve, , and for “with ” curve. Good (bad) state is set to . (b) Simulated two-dimensional electric field distribution in DRAM cell under normal charge retention operation. (c) Enhancement factors for electron emission and trap rates due to Poole-Frenkel effect (PF) and trap assisted tunneling effect (TAT).
(Color online) Model for bistable defect under strain: (a) Atomic view and (b) energy-level view.
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