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Sensing electric and magnetic fields with Bose-Einstein condensates
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Left: an elongated BEC held by a trapping wire can be arbitrarily positioned above the wire itself (i) or above an independent sample to be probed (ii) by freely adjusting the current in the wire and the offset field. Right: using a BEC held above an independent wire (transverse trap frequency ) the potential variations along the direction have been measured. The blue (lower) curve has been measured with a current passing through the wire. The red (upper) curve has been measured at the same position but charging the wire to amplify the electric potentials. The dotted lines are a guide to the eye for comparing the different patterns. The red (upper) curve has been shifted by for visibility.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) The potential sensitivity vs spatial resolution for the BEC sensor has been plotted according to Eq. (2). The solid curve shows the sensitivity of the demonstrated sensor using a rubidium BEC. Tuning the scattering length of the atoms by means of a Feshbach resonance leads to even higher sensitivity, e.g., the estimated sensitivity of a cesium BEC has been plotted as dashed curve. In comparison the field sensitivity vs spatial resolution for state-of-the-art magnetic microscopes are shown [scanning Hall probe microscopy (Refs. 6 and 25), superconducting quantum interference device (Refs. 3, 26, and 27), and thermal atom magnetometer (Ref. 4)]. The dark gray shaded region indicates the sensitivity-resolution range currently accessible only to the demonstrated BEC sensor.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) (a) A two-dimensional scan of the component of the magnetic field has been taken above a current-carrying gold wire (cross section ) at a homogeneous offset field of and a current of resulting in a transverse trap frequency of . This field map has been obtained by positioning the BEC transversely at 28 equally spaced positions. (b) The underlying current density has been reconstructed according to Eq. (3). This map clearly shows that not only current flow deviations caused by wire-edge roughness are important. Local properties of the bulk are more dominant. (c) Inserting the reconstructed current density back into Biot-Savart’s law yields the initial varying field. The visible smoothing arises from filtering the experimental data in Fourier space.


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Scitation: Sensing electric and magnetic fields with Bose-Einstein condensates