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Thermal conductivity of Fe nanofluids as a function of the sonication time. Each nanofluid shows saturation as the sonication time is increased. The inset represents the thermal conductivity with error bars.
The correlation of scattered light is obtained right after sonication (diamonds) and after sonicated (circles). The relaxation rates are and , respectively.
The average size of nanoclusters increases as a function of time after the sonication stopped. The nanoparticles agglomerate rapidly after the sonication stopped. The inset represents the variation of the thermal conductivity of nanofluid as time past after the sonication stopped. The measurement started after a sonication.
The thermal conductivity of Fe nanofluids containing different volume fractions of nanoparticles denoted by closed squares. The thermal conductivity of Fe nanofluids containing a low fraction of nanoparticles increases linearly, but shows a nonlinear increase as the concentration becomes higher. Open circles represent thermal conductivity of the Cu nanofluids for comparison.
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