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Schematics of CAFM (inset). (a) The results of the first, second, and fifth ramps of five sequential ramps: (b) Subsequent current image at sensing . Subsequent (c) current image and (d) topographical image at sensing .
(a) Current image with sensing on area, the broken square shows the stressed area after negative stress ; (b) Subsequent current image on the same area with a negative sensing . (c) Topographical image at .
BD during a single ramp (inset). (a) Consequent post-BD ramp after BD. Simultaneous (b) current and (c) topographical images at sensing . (d) Topographical profile of the hillock along AA’ in (c).
The mechanism diagram of BD evolution. Si deformation occurs prior to the BD event and hastens it. The topographical hillock grows in height during BD evolution.
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