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SEM image of the CNTs vertically grown on silicon substrates by patterning the nickel seed layer. Inset in this image shows a higher magnification of nanotubes indicating a tip growth mechanism.
The fabrication process of the nanotube-based field emission sources. The growth of vertical tubes is critical for this structure. Carbon tubes are then coated with an insulating layer ( here) and polished to expose the buried nanotube, followed by a plasma ashing step to form a partially hollow tube. (b) The schematic operation of the electron emission sources to create patterns on the opposite resist-coated substrate.
Creation of lines with randomly grown nanotubes. Inset shows the result of a cluster of CNTs generated by photolithography.
Schematic showing the refinement process: (a) starting from photolithography to grow CNTs, (b) encapsulation, (c) first exposure, (d) resist developing, (e) Ni coating, (f) lift-off to retain the patterned Ni islands, (g) second patterning and growth, and finally achieving single standing isolated carbon nanotubes suitable for the formation of individual lines.
The evolution of carbon nanotubes from a clustered shape onto an isolated form.
Several lines, drawn using individual encapsulated nanotubes: (a) the SEM image of a line drawn on a resist-coated substrate with a width of 150 nm, (b) SEM image of a 120 nm line. Inset shows the formation of CNTs on such a nickel line. (c) The formation of two parallel lines with a spacing of 50 nm and width of 80 nm.
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