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Shadow-graphic images of shockwave generated from laser ablation (a) in the cavity with aspect ratio of 3 (depth , diameter ), (b) in the cavity with aspect ratio of 6 (depth , diameter ) and (c) on a flat surface. The shock front (S), ionization front (I), contact front (C), acoustic wave in the glass (A) and back pressure-induced shockwave (B) are labeled in the figures.
Plume expansion distance as a function of time. The inset shows air shockwave radius as a function of time for laser ablation in the cavities and on the flat surface in a log-log scale.
Schematic of laser ablation plume and shockwave.
Electron number density and plasma temperature vs distance from surface. Flat surface and cavity (diameter , depth ) data at after the laser pulse.
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