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The schematics of fabrication of the open- and closed-tip CNTs. The processes correspond to (a) removing the manicure coated on an AAO membrane and bonding of the membrane on a silicon wafer, (b) fabrication of open-tip CNTs, (c) ion millings and etching in acid solution, and (d) fabrication of closed-tip CNTs by exposure to acetylene gas followed by ion milling.
SEM images of the [(a) and (b)] open- and (c) closed-tip CNTs fabricated on AAO membranes bonded on Si wafers, after being etched in acid solution. The average diameter and length of CNTs are about 50 and , respectively. The intertube distance and the tube height are about the same value around .
Field emission current density vs the applied electric field for the (a) open- and (b) closed-tip CNTs fabricated on AAO membranes bonded on highly doped -type Si wafers. Inset is the Fowlor-Nordheim plots.
Emission stability of the (a) open- and (b) closed-tip CNT field emitters, continuously operated in a dc mode. Inset is a field emission image of the open-tip CNTs by applying a field of
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