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Schematic of the solution-precipitation process for growing Mg–Al spinel microcrystals on the sapphire surface.
Etched pits on the -axial sapphire surface, as observed by AFM; the etching times were (a) 5 and (b) .
Atomic arrangement of the triangular -plane (0001) sapphire structures.
Mg–Al spinel microcrystals grown on the sapphire surface, as observed by AFM: (a) and (b) etch pits.
XRD patterns of the sapphire surface and precipitates.
(a) SEM photograph of a Mg–Al spinel microcrystal grown on a sapphire surface; (b) EPXMA mapping analysis showing the distribution of elements at Mg.
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