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Electroluminescence from the output facet of a laser (a) before and (b) after COD. Dark spots can be identified on the output facet where the COD occurred.
mapping of an etched laser after COD and a magnification of the output facet region. The DLDs start from the output facet, split into many branches, and propagate up a distance of more than half the resonator length, in a direction perpendicular to the front mirror of the laser ( PL intensity, PL intensity).
FIB cut through a laser after COD, uncovering a DLD. Different epitaxial layers as well as a defect in the middle of the active region, namely, in the InGaP QW and partially in the AlGaInP waveguides, can be identified.
(a) Microscope top view near the output facet of a laser deep etched down into the layer. DLDs become visible because they etch at a slower rate than the surrounding “good” crystalline material. (b) FIB top-view image of another deep-etched laser after COD showing the semicircular structure of DLDs.
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