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Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters
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10.1063/1.2356375
/content/aip/journal/apl/89/12/10.1063/1.2356375
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/apl/89/12/10.1063/1.2356375
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic of the experimental setup. L: femtosecond laser ( repetition rate, pulse duration, and ); BBO: nonlinear crystal; P: Glan prism; O: microscope objective (numerical , ) leading to an full width at half maximum (FWHM) diameter focal spot; BS: nonpolarizing beam splitter; CC: corner cube; PZT: mirror mounted on a piezoelectric transducer; KTP: macroscopic crystal or single subwavelength size crystal; F: SHG filter; APD: avalanche photodiode in photon counting regime; and : Si photodetectors of the balanced receiver recording SHG at (a SHG filter, not shown, is put in front of the detectors); and : the same for the balanced receiver at fundamental optical frequency (an IR filter, not shown, is put in front of the detectors). Insert: full lines, detected signals as a function of time for a forward translation of the mirror. Up: signal at fundamental frequency with a sinusoidal fit at frequency and Bottom: at SHG frequency with a sinusoidal fit at frequency . Dashed line: voltage applied to the PZT on half a period (vertical scale: a.u.).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Results from the balanced homodyne detection. (a) Laboratory axes with -polarized incident fundamental beam propagating along the axis. KTP crystal principal axes ( and ). Full lines denote axes in the plane. : rotation angle of the nonlinear crystal around the axis. (b) Linearity of as a function of fundamental incident power. Points: experimental data and full line: best linear dependence fit. (c) as a function of (in degrees). (d) Relative SHG phase shift as a function of .

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Application of the balanced homodyne technique to subwavelength size nonlinear crystals. (a) Rasterscan image of SHG signal from a KTP nanocrystal with an avalanche photodiode. The FWHM diameter of SHG spot intensity is about , very close to the theoretical two-photon microscope resolution ( FWHM). (b) Number of detected SHG photons as a function of incident power with a best square-law dependence fit. (c) Fundamental interference signal as a function of time for a single nanocrystal and (d) corresponding SHG interference signal .

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/content/aip/journal/apl/89/12/10.1063/1.2356375
2006-09-21
2014-04-24
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/apl/89/12/10.1063/1.2356375
10.1063/1.2356375
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