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Scaling laws for pulsed electrohydrodynamic drop formation
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Schematic of the EHD drop generation system. When a voltage is applied between the Teflon nozzle (through a metal union) and the silicon substrate, the initially flat water meniscus is deformed into a Taylor cone, and a jet is emitted. A drop can be produced on the substrate using a voltage pulse, which leads to pulsed cone jets. (b) EHD drop generation process at successive times. An external voltage of with a pulse duration was applied to de-ionized water within a inner-diameter (i.d.) Teflon nozzle. The camera was triggered on the rising edge of the pulse. The drop formation process appeared steady with a camera frame rate of frames per second (fps) and exposure time of . The slight asymmetry was a result of skewed liquid accumulation that modifies electric field distribution close to the substrate.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Drop formation flow rate data illustrating the scaling law. Teflon nozzles with three different combinations of inner diameters , lengths , and nozzle-to-collector separations were used: (●) , , ; (∎) , , ; (▴) , , . The voltage was varied between 1.2 and ; the nominal field strength was . The solid line is a linear regression fit to the flow rate for a -i.d. nozzle with an constant of 0.991. The dashed lines are linear fits to the data for 50- and -i.d. nozzles, respectively, with slopes equal to that of the solid line.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Intrinsic pulsation frequency as a function of the applied voltage. For a system with , , and , the intrinsic pulsation frequency was measured with a camera using a exposure time. The error bars represent the maximum standard deviation of three independent measurements in the reported voltage range.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Scaling laws for pulsed electrohydrodynamic drop formation