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Characteristic current vs voltage curves at room temperature exhibiting the bistable memory effect using (a) an structure and (b) a structure. In both cases the device is set on by sweeping past (here, ) and off by continuing the sweep into the NDR region. The gray curve in (a) shows the average response (and standard errors) of a similar “clean” structure without NPs.
Cole-Cole plot of imaginary vs real impedance for (●) on and (엯) off states. The arrow indicates the direction of increasing frequency. The inset is a zoom showing the inductive bend (i.e., deviation from semicircle) in the on state, which corresponds to the negative peak in Fig. 3.
(a) Capacitance and conductance as a function of frequency: (●) on state capacitance, (▴) on state conductance, (엯) off state capacitance, and (▵) off state conductance. (b) Capacitance vs frequency for three device models: interfacial trap layers (Ref. 13), space-charge limited current (Ref. 14), and a resistor in series with a parallel resistor-capacitor combination . The horizontal dotted line in both plots shows the geometric capacitance, .
Typical curves at low temperature (in this plot, ). The on and off curves shown here are in the same current density range as is observed at room temperatures. However, the super off state appears (sporadically) only at suppressed temperature. The labels, on, off, and super off indicate the state of the device at the beginning of the (positive) voltage sweep.
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