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Dark spot formation mechanism in organic light emitting diodes
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10.1063/1.2357568
/content/aip/journal/apl/89/13/10.1063/1.2357568
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/apl/89/13/10.1063/1.2357568
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) (a) Current density–voltage characteristics as a function of OLED operation time. The EL images of an OLED operated at the current density of for 1 and are also shown in the inset. (b) Optical microscope image of OLEDs taken through the bottom ITO electrode with applied bias. (c) Optical microscope image of OLEDs taken from the top surface of Al electrode under illumination.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) FESEM image of the dark spot magnified . (a) FESEM image of small protrusion around dark spot, which is magnified . (c) Al and (d) In SRPES spectra. Al and In SPEM images are shown in insets. The size of SPEM image is .

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) (a) X-ray microdiffraction pattern of as-grown sample. (b) X-ray microdiffraction pattern of degraded sample. (c) HRXRD spectra of OLED as a function of applied current density.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) (a) HRXRD spectra of -NPD as a function of applied current density. (b) HRXRD spectra of as a function of applied current density [(∎) , (◻) , (●) , (엯) , and (▴) ]. All samples were biased for [(+) (211), (++) (222), and (+++) Al (111)].

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/content/aip/journal/apl/89/13/10.1063/1.2357568
2006-09-26
2014-04-24
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Dark spot formation mechanism in organic light emitting diodes
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/apl/89/13/10.1063/1.2357568
10.1063/1.2357568
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