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(Color online) Illustration of microfabrication method for freestanding np-Au bridge. (a) Schematic layout of a microfabricated Au–Ag alloy bridge with Al film underneath as a sacrificial layer. The bridge is secured by clamping films. (b) Release the bridge by successively etching the Al, SiO2, and Si. (c) Anneal at for to induce thermal buckling. (d) Dealloy in nitric acid to create a flat freestanding np-Au bridge; remove rinse water by critical point drying.
(a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of a np-Au bridge ruptured after dealloying. (b) Pronounced necking is observed at np-Au ligament breakage.
Comparison of plastic thermal buckling in Au–Ag bridges and np-Au bridges after dealloying. (a) SEM image (59° tilt) of Au–Ag bridges after rapid thermal annealing at . (b) SEM (59° tilt) of the same bridges after dealloying in concentrated nitric acid. (c) SEM showing the nanoporous morphology of the np-Au bridge. [The scale bars in (a) and (b) are long.]
Focused ion beam (FIB) images of np-Au cantilevers created by FIB milling of a doubly clamped np-Au bridge. (a) Top view. (b) 20° tilt view.
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