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Shallow grating couplers etched with FIB in SOI waveguides. By using as etch enhancement gas the efficiency is greatly improved. The top left inset shows a FIB cross section through one grating slit etched with .
Losses measured in waveguides that were etched with relatively small doses of ions. Higher energy implantation generates damage deeper into the layer and thus more loss. By adding as protective layer no significant losses were measured.
Gratings fabricated with as mask using a two step etch process. The gray curve shows the coupling efficiency of a grating etched by only the first step. The second step was varied, and the most efficient gratings were produced with ions and etch gas. The inset shows a cross section of a grating etched with mask and .
Cross section through two slits of a grating etched (a) with TFA for mask break through and (b) followed by a second etch step with gas and ions . The white dotted lines were added to increase the contrast.
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