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Equivalent circuit of collision dominated sample. is the device cross section. and are the device length and width, respectively, is the low field mobility, and and the three dimensional and two dimensional electron concentrations, respectively.
Energy band diagram of short ballistic sample under small bias . In the dashed energy region, electrons are moving only from the left to the right. The density of states in the energy range is one-half of the density of states in the equilibrium (the Pauli exclusion principle does not allow two electrons with the same velocity and the same spins occupy the same energy level, and electrons moving from the right to the left are prohibited in this energy range).
Real and imaginary parts of admittance for 1D sample with noninteracting electrons (dashed lines) and for 2D or 3D samples (solid lines) in units of for 1D, for 2D case, and for 3D case.
Oscillation frequency vs for 2D electrons in GaN , GaAs , and light electrons in Si samples for .
Constant and thermal and Fermi velocities for two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) geometries [see Eq. (1)]. is the Boltzmann constant and is temperature (K).
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