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In situ investigation of the island nucleation of Ge on Si(001) using x-ray scattering methods
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Sketch of the in situ x-ray scattering setup. Under grazing incidence conditions, the evolution of the sample morphology can be followed in the small angle regime; the formation of facets is indicated in the GISAXS pattern. The lattice relaxation is monitored by the appearance of Bragg peaks in GIXD. Intensity maps around the (220) and (400) Si and Ge Bragg peaks, integrated perpendicular to the surface, are also shown.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Evolution of the lattice relaxation during the growth of Ge on Si(001) for depositions from 0 to 11 ML at (a) and from 0 to 7 ML at (d). The Ge concentration for a deposit of 7 ML as a function of lattice parameter is plotted below for the corresponding temperatures [(b) and (e)]. Vertical dotted lines mark the lattice parameters of Ge and Si. In (c) and (f), the integrated Bragg peak intensity is plotted as a function of the deposited Ge amount. Insets show AFM images after the growth.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) GISAXS images for different deposition stages and azimuthal orientations for a deposition temperature of . For symmetry reasons, only the left or the right parts of the images are presented. (a) Scattering image (left half) from a flat surface in the ⟨100⟩ sample azimuth; the central beam is blocked by a beam stop. (b) {105} facets attributed to pyramids at deposited 5 ML. The bare substrate GISAXS from (a) was subtracted. The indicated angle of 11° corresponds to the angle between the facet normal ⟨105⟩ and the surface normal ⟨100⟩. For comparison with (a), only the right half of the GISAXS image is shown. (c) The ⟨110⟩ azimuth for a deposition of 5 ML (left half of the GISAXS image). (d) At 6 ML the sharp pyramid to dome transition is reached and {113} facets appear. 19.5° corresponds to the angle between ⟨113⟩ and ⟨001⟩.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: In situ investigation of the island nucleation of Ge on Si(001) using x-ray scattering methods