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(a) AFM image of the -based varistor surface. (b) Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) scans with tip bias increasing from . The tip sample separation was in all the AFM images
Energy vs tip bias plot illustrating the minimum charge condition.
Results of nonlinear coefficient , breakdown electric field , mean barrier height value obtained from the EFM data analysis , mean barrier height value obtained by combining Eq. (1) and the complex capacitance plane analysis , mean grain size , and relative density obtained for the SCNCr system.
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