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(Color online) Phase-contrast images [(a)–(d)] and the reconstructed 2D projected thickness maps [(e)–(h)] at a water flow rate of (or ) and under [(a) and (e)] and atomization air [(b) and (f)] and [(c) and (g)] and [(d) and (h)] atomization air pressures. Comparison between the Fresnel diffraction intensity calculated from (h) and (d) at (i) and (j) to demonstrate the goodness of the reconstruction.
(Color online) Integrated local liquid density profiles along with the spray axis normalized with the density at the nozzle orifice at 0, 68, 110, and . The insets [(a)–(c)] show the cross-sectional liquid volume fraction distribution at 0.65, 1.5, and , respectively, from the nozzle (as indicated by the arrows) under atomization air pressure.
(Color online) Volume fraction of water along both the radial direction and the spray axis under (a) and (b) atomization air pressures. The inset shows the quantitative definition of the breakup length of the jet at . The lines in the inset are the linear fits to the peak water volume fraction around the breakup point. The interception of the fits yields a breakup length of .
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