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Schematics of an amplitude modulation AFM operated under bimodal excitation. The cantilever is mechanically excited at its first two resonances. The photodiode signal (output) is processed to separate its components , , , and .
Topography and phase images of several T6 islands on silicon: (a) topography, (b) first mode phase shift, and (c) second mode phase shift. (d) Height variation across the dashed lines shown in (a). (e) Phase shift variations across the dashed line shown in (b) and (c). The vertical discontinuous lines show the edges of the T6 island. The contrast observed between silicon and T6 with the phase shift of the first mode is barely above the noise level. T6 and silicon are clearly distinguished by plotting the phase shift of the second mode. and ; and ; .
(a) AM-AFM topography of a cluster of conjugated molecules (TTF). (b) First and second mode phase shifts across the dashed line shown in (a). and ; and ; .
Theory and experiment comparison for first and second mode phase shift cross sections obtained on T6 monolayers deposited on silicon.
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