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(Color online) Setup for near-field terahertz microscopy. A femtosecond laser generates terahertz pulses, which propagate through free space. A chopper and lock-in device allow one to record the amplitude of the electric field. Terahertz radiation is focused onto a subwavelength hole by a hyperhemispherical Teflon lens. The frog muscle sample is put behind the hole, and the transmitted terahertz pulse is focused by another hemispherical lens to the detector. Measurements are done keeping the delay constant.
(Color online) (a) Detail of the periodic terahertz amplitude signal recorded through a self-beating frog auricular heart muscle. Delay refers to the delay after the start of each beating. Time integration is , averaged over ten consecutive periods. Measurements are done after (thick solid black), (dashed red), (dotted green), and (dashed-dotted blue). The thin black solid line stands for the mechanical motion background. Inset shows three full mechanical oscillations. Delay refers to the total measurement time. (b) Some terahertz ion flux signatures (at , 20, 40, and ) extracted by subtracting the reproducible mechanical motion of the muscle.
(Color online) (a) Time evolution of the total surface of the action potential vs total time . Solid lines are linear fits. The dotted line indicates when the frog auricular heart muscle stopped beating. (b) Time evolution of , where is the time at maximum signal in the rising (square, black) and decreasing (circle, red) fronts of the signal. Solid lines are linear fits.
(Color online) Comparison between AP signals of frog auricular fiber in the control physiological solution recorded after (square, black) and (circle, red). The inset presents the spontaneously beating frog auricle electrical activity recorded in the physiological solution using intracellular microelectrodes. (a) AP and (b) AP associated with a late arrhythmic response.
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