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(Color online) Sample XRD spectra of nc-rutile . The average crystallite sizes (in nanometers) of the samples are indicated. The short vertical bars at the bottom denote XRD positions of bulk rutile.
(Color online) Raman spectra of rutile . The average crystallite sizes (in nanometers) of the samples are marked.
(Color online) Eight-peak fit of the Raman spectrum obtained in the range of from a rutile . The first-order Raman modes and their symmetries are indicated. The broad features at ca. 237, 355, 541, and are positioned approximately where combination bands are seen in the bulk rutile spectrum (Ref. 17).
(Color online) Crystallite-size-dependent variation of the Raman frequency relative to bulk value. The open squares represent nc-rutile (Ref. 30), solid diamonds represent rutile samples of this study, and the solid curve is a phonon confinement model prediction for rutile (Refs. 12 and 30).
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