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[(a)–(d)] Sequential TEM images with schematic illustrations showing a CNT formation of the plastic bend and its recovery. (a) The left end of a straight CNT was attached to the cartridge. (b) The CNT was bent elastically to an angle of approximately 60° under mechanical duress with a Pt-coated Si tip and current of . The right side appears wider than the left side because the right side protruded from the focal plane. (c) The CNT was bent plastically with an angle of 18° after the current flow and duress were removed. (d) The CNT recovered its original straight position when a current of was applied under the configuration shown in the corresponding illustration. [(e)–(g)] Sequential TEM images showing the second process of the formation of plastic bend and the recovery for the same CNT shown in (d). (e) An elastically bent CNT under mechanical duress and subsequent current flow of , (f) a plastically bent CNT with an angle of 37° after current flow, and (g) a cured one after current flow of . By accident, some tiny blobs adhered to the CNT during the process of (e). They were subsequently removed using the high-current process to obtain (g). (h) A TEM image shows a typical double-walled CNT.
Temporal variation of the circumferential current density during the (a) processes of forming plastic bend, (b) processes of curing the bend to bent CNTs, and (c) variation of the circumferential current density during the second curing process replotted with the variation of the applied voltage. The solid and dotted lines in (a) and (b) respectively denote the first and second processes shown in Fig. 1.
[(a)–(d)] Sequential TEM images showing the current-induced curing process of a single one-turn coiled CNT. (a) A coiled CNT with respective line and coil diameters of 3.7 and was suspended and contacted by a nanotube cartridge (left) and a Pt-coated Si tip (right). (b) The coil started to loosen at . (c) It drastically changed its structure at . (d) It became straight at 2.6 and . Some parts of the coil appear wider because they are out of focus.
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