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SEM images of CNTs grown on different supporting materials. [(a)–(c)] Top-view SEM images of CNTs grown with thick Fe deposited on Cr, Pd, and , respectively (scale bars: ). (d) Cross-sectional SEM image of CNTs grown on thick Fe deposited on Ta (scale bar: ).
SEM images of surface morphologies of annealed Fe layer on Ta, , Cr, and Pd. Initial Fe film thickness is . Insets to (c) and (d) are SEM images of the surfaces of the Cr and Pd supporting layers after annealing without Fe deposition. Scale bars are for [(a)–(d)] and for all insets.
(Color online) Low resolution cross-sectional TEM images of Fe islands formed on (a) Ta and (b) . High resolution cross-sectional TEM images of Fe islands on (c) Ta and (d) . (e) Schematic of the catalyst island formation under the balance of the surface energies. (f) Schematics of CNT growth on the Fe catalyst particles, where CNTs grow vertically on the catalysts on the Ta support and randomly on the catalysts on .
SEM images of patterned vertically aligned CNTs with high densities. (a) 5, 10, and wide CNT columns grown on predefined patterns consisting of thick Fe on the Ta support. (b) wide CNT films grown in via holes, on the bottom of which thick Fe was deposited on Ta.
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