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SEM images of titania nanotubes with different tube lengths: (a) and (b) , HF electolyte and (c) and (d) , KF electrolyte. Left panel represents top view, while right panel shows side view.
(a) TEM and (b) high resolution TEM images of nanotubes annealed in ammonia.
(Color online) (a) Current-voltage characteristics under AM 1.5 illumination for different lengths of titania tubes (, , and ) and different spacer layers (25 and ). (b) Comparison of current-voltage characteristics under AM 1.5 illumination for cells consisting of 1 and long tube arrays annealed in air and .
The performance parameters of the dye-sensitized solar cells with different tube lengths under AM 1.5 illumination. The tubes were fabricated using HF electrolyte, while the 1 and tubes were fabricated using KF electrolyte.
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