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Room-temperature PL spectrum from a GaN:C layer in vacuum and air ambient. The transition from “vacuum-1” to “vacuum-2” state took place after annealing the sample in vacuum at and subsequent cooling down to room temperature. The QEs of the YL band are 0.001% in air and 0.3% in vacuum after the annealing. .
Evolution of the YL intensity under different ambient conditions.
Schematic of band potentials and main transitions in GaN:C layer grown on sapphire substrate. The solid and dashed arrows indicate radiative and nonradiative transitions, respectively. A very thin oxide layer at GaN surface, as well as adsorbed oxygen species on it, is also schematically shown. NS denotes a thin near-surface region where potentials are nearly flat. A denotes deep acceptor states responsible for the YL band.
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