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XRD measurements with synchrotron radiation , indicating Ru metal formation on MWNTs. A large peak at around is corresponding to (101) of quartz capillary used in the measurements.
Absolute electron energy level difference between the Fermi level of MWNT and the standard reduction potential of a pair, and PEE spectra (inner part) showing the work function of two kinds of MWNT. Abscissa showing DOS is presented with logarithmic scale.
FTIR spectra demonstrating the appearance of surface carboxyl groups via oxidation treatments and their disappearance by bond formation with .
Schematic diagram of the different formation mechanisms of on P-MWNT and O-MWNT in the preparation process and their actual TEM images (scale ).
Cyclic voltammograms in electrolyte with a scan rate of . The reference and counterelectrodes were a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) and a Pt wire, respectively. The number in a round bracket in legends means the cycle number in which the voltammogram was obtained.
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