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(a) Normalized RHEED intensity oscillations during the growth of films at in varying . (b) XRD scans for three films grown at in , , and . peaks are indexed using orthorhombic notation. AFM images of the surface morphology of the films grown at in (c) and (d).
(a) Reciprocal space map around the perovskite (114) peaks of film and substrate. (b) In-plane and out-plane lattice parameters of films as a function of and . (c) Annular dark-field STEM image of the interface.
Growth phase diagram as a function of vs for -thick films. Samples indicated by open circles, open squares, and closed triangles were evaluated to be , , and their mixture, respectively. Dashed circle indicates the optimal growth condition for in the layer-by-layer mode.
AFM images with the corresponding line scans (bottom) and the normalized RHEED intensity at the initial stages of growth (top) for a series of films grown under at (a), (b), (c), and at under (d).
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