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HRTEM micrographs of CNTs grown [(a) and (b)] without electric field and [(c) and (d)] with electric field. (Arrows indicate the direction of tube axis.)
(a) TEM and (b) HRTEM micrographs of CNTs grown in a pulsed electric field, (c) schematic model of graphite layers; (d) pulsed voltage outputted from a power supply.
(a) Raman spectra of CNTs grown in a pulsed electric field with variant frequencies; (b) corresponding values.
(Color online) Models for CNT growth: (a) carbon concentration gradient calculated for a conical catalyst particle coupled with the “herringbone” growth model; (b) stress and deformed boundary of the nanotube and the catalyst particle pulled by electrostatic force; (c) carbon concentration gradient calculated for the elongated catalyst particle coupled with the “tubular” growth model.
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