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XPS analysis of deposited with reactive sputtering under the oxygen-to-argon flow ratios of (a) and (b) .
Morphology of deposited with reactive sputtering at the substrate temperatures of (a) 200, (b) 300, and (c) .
Lattice images around the growth tip of a nanorod.
(a) Cross-section views and (b) field-emission characteristics of nanorods grown for 0.5, 2, and at the same flow ratio of and substrate temperature of .
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